Biology Final Exam Review Answer Key

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Mitosis and Meiosis
#1 this moves chromosomes during cell division spindles
#2 what is the result of mitosis and cytokinesis 2 daughter cells identical to the parent cell
#3 the cell cycle is monitored as each cell passes through what checkpoints
#4 what is the product of meiosis 4 haploid cells
#5 this is the exchange of corresponding portions of chromatids between homologous chromosomes crossing over
Mendel and Genetics
#1 when an individual possess one dominant and one recessive allele heterozygous
#2 when two dominant alleles are expressed at the same time codominance
#3 it states that the alleles of a gene separate from each other during meiosis law of segregation
#4 the passing of traits from parents to offspring heredity
#5 can a child have a trait if neither parent shows the trait yes, if the parents are heterozygous
DNA and Proteins
#1 What are the base pairing rules Adenine - Thymine, Cytosine - Guanine
#2 What are the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogen base, phosphate group
#3 this is the area where the double helix separates during replication replication fork
#4 what are the 3 ways RNA is different from DNA ribose instead of deoxyribose, single strand instead of double strand, uracil instead of thymine
#5 what are the coding regions called exons
#1 What have scientists noticed about all vertebrate embryos they are very similar early on
#2 Give an example of a vestigial structure human tailbone, appendix, whale's lower limb
#3 this is the process by which a species becomes better suited to its environment adaptation
#4 this is the process by which organisms well suited to the environment survive and produce more offspring than those less suited natural selection
#5 these are the 3 main pieces of evidence for evolution fossils, anatomy (vestigial and homologous structures), biological molecules (DNA and proteins)
Classification and Mammals
#1 this is the smallest taxonomic group species
#2 this is the largest taxonomic group domain
#3 this is the science of naming and classifying organisms taxonomy
#4 what are the characteristics of mammals hair, 2 sets of teeth, endothermic, nurse their young
#5 what is the function of hair insulation, sensory, defense (camolflauge)
Final Question
explain why chromosome number is reduced before sexual reproduction otherwise, the offsrping ehould have twice as many chromosomes as the parents and whould not survive