Structure of Matter Answer Key

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Atoms Basics

What kinds of particles make up an atom?

  1. protons, neutrons, and electrons
  2. elements, compounds, and molecules
  3. protons, nuclei, and electrons

a. protons, neutrons, and electrons


Which part of an atom has the least mass?


  1. a proton
  2. an electron
  3. a neutron
  4. the nucleus

B. an electron


What are the main particles in the nuclus of an atom?

Protons and Neutrons


The electron cloud surrounding the nucleus of an atom...

  1. contains most of the mass of the atom
  2. is enclosed by a solid shell
  3. is mostly empty space

C. is mostly empty space


What are the charges of the particles in an atom?

Protons = positive

Electrons = negative

Neutrons = neutral (no charge)

Atoms Advanced

How is the path of electron on your models different from an actual atom?

Electrons travel in 3D paths in the electron clouds.


About how much mass is in the electron cloud?

Less than 1%


The nucleus accounts for approximately what percentage of the total mass of an atom?



Which particles determine an atoms charge?

Protons and electrons


How fast do electrons move?

Near the speed of light

States of Matter Basics

How do the molecules of a solid move?

They vibrate back and forth in one place.


When energy is taken away, molecular motion...

  1. decrease
  2. increases
  3. stays the same

a. Decreases


Silver is a metal that can be melted to form jewelry.  As the silver melts, what happens to the atoms that make up the solid?

  1. they move closer together
  2. they move faster
  3. they move in circles

B. They move faster


When a substance changes from a solid to liquid to gas, the molecular motion...



What causes matter to change from one state to another?

Temperature (energy) Changes


States of Matter Advanced

List the states of matter in DECREASING molecular motion

Gas, Liquid, Solid


What two states of matter do not change volume?

Solid and liquid


What is the most common state of matter in the universe?



In which two phase changes involving water does the motion of water molecules INCREASE?

  1. the melting of ice and the condensation of water vapor
  2. the freezing of water and the evaporation of water
  3. the melting of ice and the evaporation of water

C. The melting of ice and evaportation of water


X, Y, and Z are either a solid, liquid, or gas.  Which one is which?


Particles move independently of each other

Particles vibrate about a fixed point Particles move past one another

X = Gas

Y = Solid

Z = Liquid

Periodic Table

What are the elements in:


Carbon and Oxygen


What are the elements in:


Xenon and Fluorine


What are the elements in:


Calcium and Chlorine


What are the elements in:


Silver, Nitrogen, and Oxygen


What are the elements in:


Copper, Sulfur, and Oxygen

Final Question

What are the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons (PEN) in the element Iodine?

P = 53

E = 53

N = 74